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[O] History(Elect) Smart Guides

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  1. Unit 1: The World in Crisis

    1. Impact of World War I in Europe
    14 Topics
  2. 2. Stalin's Soviet Union
    12 Topics
  3. 3. Hitler's Germany
    27 Topics
  4. 4. Outbreak WWII in Europe
    13 Topics
  5. 5. Germany's Defeat in World War II
    21 Topics
  6. 6. Outbreak War in Asia Pacific
    6 Topics
  7. 7. Japan's Defeat
    10 Topics
  8. Unit 2: Bi-Polarity and the Cold War
    8. Reasons for the Cold War in Europe
    21 Topics
  9. 9. The Korean War
    19 Topics
  10. 10. Cuban Missile Crisis
    25 Topics
  11. 11. The End of Cold War
    19 Topics
Chapter 3, Topic 1
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Political and Economic Circumstances in Germany

Kaiser William II (1859-1941), last German Emperor, ca 1920s.

Before World War I, Germany was ruled by an emperor, Kaiser Wilhelm II. But at the end of the war, the Kaiser fled to Holland and abdicated his throne.

Post-war Berlin (Germany’s capital city) was in such a chaotic state that it was too dangerous for the politicians to meet there to work out the new constitution, following the collapse of the monarchy. The politicians thus met in the small town of Weimar. Germany’s new democratic government thus became known as the Weimar Republic.

Friedrich Ebert (1871-1925), socialist leader of the Social Democratic movement in Germany was president of the Weimar Republic from 1919 to 1925. 
  • Its first president was Friedrich Ebert, leader of the German Social Democratic Party.
  • All citizens were guaranteed freedom of speech and religion by the Bill of Rights.
  • The Bill of Rights also guaranteed equality under the law. All men and women over the age of 20 could vote in elections for President and parliament to run the government in Germany.
  • The parliament, or Reichstag, would implement the laws of the country.