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[O] Geography(Pure) Smart Guides

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  1. Topic I: Coasts(Physical)

    1. How and why are coastal environments different and dynamic?
    5 Topics
  2. 2. Why are coastal areas valuable?
    4 Topics
  3. 3. How can we manage coastal areas in a sustainable manner?
    2 Topics
  4. Topic II: Living with Tectonic Hazards(Physical)
    4. Why are some areas more prone to tectonic hazards?
    2 Topics
  5. 5. What landforms and associated tectonic phenomena are found at plate boundaries?
    3 Topics
  6. 6. How do people prepare for and respond to earthquakes?
    3 Topics
  7. Topic III: Variable Weather and Changing Climate(Physical)
    7. Why do different places experience different weather and climate?
    7 Topics
  8. 8. What is happening to the Earth’s climate?
    5 Topics
  9. 9. Is the weather becoming more extreme?
    4 Topics
  10. Topic IV: Global Tourism(Human)
    10. How does the nature of tourism vary from place to place?
    2 Topics
  11. 11. Why has tourism become a global phenomenon?
    3 Topics
  12. 12. Developing tourism at what cost?
    2 Topics
  13. Topic V: Food Resources(Human)
    13. How and why have food consumption patterns changed since the 1960s?
    6 Topics
  14. 14. What are the trends and challenges in the production of food crops?
    4 Topics
  15. 15. How can the problem of food shortage be addressed?
    1 Topic
  16. Topic VI: Health and Diseases(Human)
    16. What are the global patterns of health and diseases?
    3 Topics
  17. 17. What influences the spread and impact of infectious diseases?
    3 Topics
  18. 18. How can we manage the current and future spread of infectious diseases?
    4 Topics
  19. Topic VII: Geography Skills and Investigations
    19. Map Reading
    11 Topics
  20. 20. Tourism Fieldwork
    1 Topic
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LAWS AND REGULATIONS

(Acronym: Limit & Restrict (to) Protect)

LIMIT DAMAGING ACTIVITIES

Damaging activities are activities that interrupt the functioning of natural systems. Some of these activities include blasting coral reefs to create a channel for boats, clearing mangroves to develop fish farms and dumping waste into coastal areas or into seas

As banning these damaging activities might be costly and inefficient, many national and local government bodies instead try to limit these activities. This is done through management that aligns the needs and demands of people together with the nature of the coastal environment.

// For example, sand dunes were often trampled on by people visiting the beach in port Philip. Dune vegetation was being destroyed and the sand dunes were left exposed to wind erosion. Houses behind the dunes were in danger of being partly buried by the large volume of sand blown by the wind.

To allow the dunes to recover, authorities fenced off the dunes and built access paths to the beach. This decision allowed the coastal environment to recover. However, these fences make the beach look less attractive and do not allow visitors and residents access to all parts of the beach

RESTRICT DEVELOPMENT IN AREAS PRONE TO NATURAL HAZARDS

Natural hazards such as tsunamis can be disastrous to natural environments and human activities

// For example, The powerful earthquake in Tohoku in March 2011 caused the death of over 20,000 people, the destruction of coastal towns, and the failure of nuclear power stations. The cost of rebuilding has been conservatively estimated at US$300 billion

Despite the occurrence and unpredictability of natural hazards, people are still attracted to coasts. This is because many of the coasts provide natural resources such as food and building materials. Coasts also provide a substantial range of built services such as docks, ports, housing and recreational facilities. However, residents and investors of these areas may have to spend more in construction and maintenance, and will also need to be prepared for emergencies.

Many national governments and local authorities have developed management policies to delay with the threat of natural hazards in coastal areas.

// For example, some laws and policies include the retreat or relocation of built structures away from areas prone to natural hazards. In the USA, the federal emergency management agency (FEMA) steers development away from areas prone to flooding or coastal erosion. Another strategy would be avoidance in Indonesia, where laws restrict new farms and residences from being established on low-lying coastal areas. Another example would be defense, such as nourishing beaches, building seawalls and replanting coastal vegetation.

PROTECT COASTAL RESOURCES

This strategy aims to prevent resources from being exploited or depleted. An example of a coastal resource is fish. Areas close to the coastline where around 90% of all marine fish are caught are vulnerable to overfishing and occurs especially in the coral reef areas of Southeast Asia where destructive fishing methods of blasting and poison fishing are used.

// For example, In both Wakatobi National Park in Indonesia and Goat Island Marine Reserve in New Zealand, zones have been marked off to prevent commercial fishing. This is done through local management or the establishment of a marine reserve. Marine reserves protect marine ecosystems which allow fish and endangered species to breed and thrive.
As a result, the goat island marine reserve is now a tourist attraction because of its plentiful fish where there are up to 14 times more snappers within the reserve than outside it.

On the other hand, protecting coastal resources is not without problems.
// For example, the establishment of marine reserves is often strongly opposed by local fishermen as they see their access to a valuable recycle, and a major source of food being denied. The potential long-term benefits of a marine reserve may not be significant to locals who can no longer fish in an area that has supported them for a Long time.