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[O] Geography(Pure) Smart Guides

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  1. Topic I: Coasts(Physical)

    1. How and why are coastal environments different and dynamic?
    5 Topics
  2. 2. Why are coastal areas valuable?
    4 Topics
  3. 3. How can we manage coastal areas in a sustainable manner?
    2 Topics
  4. Topic II: Living with Tectonic Hazards(Physical)
    4. Why are some areas more prone to tectonic hazards?
    2 Topics
  5. 5. What landforms and associated tectonic phenomena are found at plate boundaries?
    3 Topics
  6. 6. How do people prepare for and respond to earthquakes?
    3 Topics
  7. Topic III: Variable Weather and Changing Climate(Physical)
    7. Why do different places experience different weather and climate?
    7 Topics
  8. 8. What is happening to the Earth’s climate?
    5 Topics
  9. 9. Is the weather becoming more extreme?
    4 Topics
  10. Topic IV: Global Tourism(Human)
    10. How does the nature of tourism vary from place to place?
    2 Topics
  11. 11. Why has tourism become a global phenomenon?
    3 Topics
  12. 12. Developing tourism at what cost?
    2 Topics
  13. Topic V: Food Resources(Human)
    13. How and why have food consumption patterns changed since the 1960s?
    6 Topics
  14. 14. What are the trends and challenges in the production of food crops?
    4 Topics
  15. 15. How can the problem of food shortage be addressed?
    1 Topic
  16. Topic VI: Health and Diseases(Human)
    16. What are the global patterns of health and diseases?
    3 Topics
  17. 17. What influences the spread and impact of infectious diseases?
    3 Topics
  18. 18. How can we manage the current and future spread of infectious diseases?
    4 Topics
  19. Topic VII: Geography Skills and Investigations
    19. Map Reading
    11 Topics
  20. 20. Tourism Fieldwork
    1 Topic
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Cliffs and shore platforms:

  1. Hydraulic action and abrasion may erode a crack or joint on the rock surface, gradually enlarging the crack or joint to form a notch
  2. This notch may be further eroded to form a bigger hollow space called a cave.
  3. Further erosion by the waves eventually causes the roof of the cave to collapse and form a steep cliff
  4. As the process of erosion continues, an overhanging cliff is formed. Eventually, this overhanging cliff will collapse and the materials will be deposited at the foot of the cliff. Some of these materials may b carried by waves and thrown against the base of the cliff, thus causing further erosion. Over time, the cliff will retreat inland and a gently sloping platform appears at the base where the cliff used to be. This platform is called a shore platform, which is submerged during high tides.


  • Some coasts have alternate bands of more resistant and less resistant rocks arranged at right angles to the coast. The less resistant rocks will be eroded faster than the more resistant rocks. When the less resistant rocks are eroded away, bays are formed. These are wide indented coasts. The remaining more resistant rocks which extend into the sea are known as headlands.


  1. Within headlands, some rocks may be less resistant to erosion than other rocks. These parts of the headlands will be eroded more quickly, especially by hydraulic action and abrasion.
  2. Waves Attack lines of weakness at the base of the headland and undercut it, forming a notch. The continuous action of waves forms a cave at the area that is hollowed by wave action.
  3. Caves may develop on each side of the headland. Erosion may eventually join caves together, leaving a bridge of rock known as an arch above the opening. The cave has eroded through the headland to form an arch.
  4. After a period of time, the roof of the arch may collapse leaving behind a pillar of rock called a stack.
  5. The stack may be further eroded to form a stump
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