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[O] Geography(Pure) Smart Guides

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  1. Topic I: Coasts(Physical)

    1. How and why are coastal environments different and dynamic?
    5 Topics
  2. 2. Why are coastal areas valuable?
    4 Topics
  3. 3. How can we manage coastal areas in a sustainable manner?
    2 Topics
  4. Topic II: Living with Tectonic Hazards(Physical)
    4. Why are some areas more prone to tectonic hazards?
    2 Topics
  5. 5. What landforms and associated tectonic phenomena are found at plate boundaries?
    3 Topics
  6. 6. How do people prepare for and respond to earthquakes?
    3 Topics
  7. Topic III: Variable Weather and Changing Climate(Physical)
    7. Why do different places experience different weather and climate?
    7 Topics
  8. 8. What is happening to the Earth’s climate?
    5 Topics
  9. 9. Is the weather becoming more extreme?
    4 Topics
  10. Topic IV: Global Tourism(Human)
    10. How does the nature of tourism vary from place to place?
    2 Topics
  11. 11. Why has tourism become a global phenomenon?
    3 Topics
  12. 12. Developing tourism at what cost?
    2 Topics
  13. Topic V: Food Resources(Human)
    13. How and why have food consumption patterns changed since the 1960s?
    6 Topics
  14. 14. What are the trends and challenges in the production of food crops?
    4 Topics
  15. 15. How can the problem of food shortage be addressed?
    1 Topic
  16. Topic VI: Health and Diseases(Human)
    16. What are the global patterns of health and diseases?
    3 Topics
  17. 17. What influences the spread and impact of infectious diseases?
    3 Topics
  18. 18. How can we manage the current and future spread of infectious diseases?
    4 Topics
  19. Topic VII: Geography Skills and Investigations
    19. Map Reading
    11 Topics
  20. 20. Tourism Fieldwork
    1 Topic
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BEACHES

A beach is a zone of sediment deposition, usually formed from loose sand, gravel, pebbles, broken shells and corals, or a mixture of these materials. Beach materials may come from eroded cliffs, river deposits, and sediments carried by waves.The composition and size of the materials on the beach vary greatly. The composition of materials depends on the source of materials. The size of the materials may decrease over time due to the changes in weather conditions, wind direction, wave energy and ocean currents.

The slope of the beach is determined by grain size. Finer grain sizes tend to result in beaches with a gentle gradient. On the other hand, materials of coarser grains form beaches with a steeper gradient.

Beaches are constantly changing as their shapes are affected daily by waves, tides and currents. For example, during calm weather, constructive waves can help deposit materials on the beach and build it up further. On the other hand, during coastal storms, strong waves will erode and remove materials from the beach.

SPITS AND TOMBOLOS

A spit is a long, narrow ridge of sand or pebbles with one end attached to the land, and the other end free and extending into the sea. A spit is formed by longshore drift. Along some coasts where the direction of the coastline changes abruptly, longshore drift continues to transport materials in the original direction for some distance. The materials are deposited in the sea where they accumulate over time. The accumulated materials will appear above the surface of the water, forming a spit. A hook or curve may develop at one end of the spit, most likely due to incoming tidal currents and wave refraction concentrating at that point.

A spit has one end connected to mainland and has another end projecting out into the sea. If an offshore island lies near the mainland where the spit is forming, the spit may continue to extend until it connects the offshore island to the mainland. This new landform is called a tombolo. A tombolo may also join two existing islands