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[O] Pure Chemistry Smart Guides

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  1. I. EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY

    1. Measurement & Experimental Techniques
    2 Topics
  2. 2. Separation & Purification
    5 Topics
  3. II. ATOMIC STRUCTURE
    3. Kinetic Particle Theory
    5 Topics
  4. 4. Elements, Compounds & Mixtures
    3 Topics
  5. 5. Atomic Structure
    3 Topics
  6. 6. Chemical Bonding
    4 Topics
  7. III. STOICHIOMETRY
    7. Writing Chemical Equations
    2 Topics
  8. 8. The Mole Concept
    4 Topics
  9. 9. Chemical Calculations
    6 Topics
  10. IV. CHEMISTRY OF REACTIONS
    10. Acids & Bases
    4 Topics
  11. 11. Salts
    3 Topics
  12. 12. Qualitative Analysis
    4 Topics
  13. 13. Oxidation & Reduction
    6 Topics
  14. 14. Electrolysis
    6 Topics
  15. 15. Energy Changes
    3 Topics
  16. 16. Speed of Reaction
    2 Topics
  17. 17. Ammonia
    1 Topic
  18. V. PERIODICITY
    18. Metals
    7 Topics
  19. 19. Periodic Table
    3 Topics
  20. VI. ATMOSPHERE
    20. Air & Atmosphere
    3 Topics
  21. VII. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    21. Organic Chemistry
    2 Topics
  22. 22. Alkanes & Alkenes
    7 Topics
  23. 23. Alcohols & Carboxylic Acids
    5 Topics
  24. 24. Macromolecules
    4 Topics
Chapter 2, Topic 2
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Separate Solid from a Liquid

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Filtration

Purpose:

  • Separate insoluble solid particles from a liquid

Example:

  • Separate sand from water

Residue:

  • A solid that remains on the filter paper
  • Sand

Filtrate:

  • It is a liquid or solution that passes through the filter paper
  • Water

Evaporation to Dryness

Purpose:

  • To obtain a soluble solid from a solution by heating the solution until all the water has boiled off.
  • However, Solid obtained will not always be pure.

Crystallisation

Purpose:

  • obtaining a pure solid sample from its solution.
  • Dissolve the impure copper(II) sulfate crystals in water.
  • Filter to remove any insoluble impurities. Collect the filtrate.
  • Heat the copper(Ii) sulfate solution until it is saturated.
  • Saturated: until there is only a little bit of solution left
  • When the solution is saturated, leave it to cool and crystallise.
  • Filter to collect the crystals. Wash the crystals with a little cold distilled water to remove impurities. Dry the crystals between a few sheets of filter paper.