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[O] Pure Chemistry Smart Guides

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  1. I. EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY

    1. Measurement & Experimental Techniques
    2 Topics
  2. 2. Separation & Purification
    5 Topics
  3. II. ATOMIC STRUCTURE
    3. Kinetic Particle Theory
    5 Topics
  4. 4. Elements, Compounds & Mixtures
    3 Topics
  5. 5. Atomic Structure
    3 Topics
  6. 6. Chemical Bonding
    4 Topics
  7. III. STOICHIOMETRY
    7. Writing Chemical Equations
    2 Topics
  8. 8. The Mole Concept
    4 Topics
  9. 9. Chemical Calculations
    6 Topics
  10. IV. CHEMISTRY OF REACTIONS
    10. Acids & Bases
    4 Topics
  11. 11. Salts
    3 Topics
  12. 12. Qualitative Analysis
    4 Topics
  13. 13. Oxidation & Reduction
    6 Topics
  14. 14. Electrolysis
    6 Topics
  15. 15. Energy Changes
    3 Topics
  16. 16. Speed of Reaction
    2 Topics
  17. 17. Ammonia
    1 Topic
  18. V. PERIODICITY
    18. Metals
    7 Topics
  19. 19. Periodic Table
    3 Topics
  20. VI. ATMOSPHERE
    20. Air & Atmosphere
    3 Topics
  21. VII. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    21. Organic Chemistry
    2 Topics
  22. 22. Alkanes & Alkenes
    7 Topics
  23. 23. Alcohols & Carboxylic Acids
    5 Topics
  24. 24. Macromolecules
    4 Topics
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How evaporation occurs?

  • Molecules of a liquid have different kinetic energies.
  • When they constantly collide with each other, energy is being transferred.
  • At the surface of the liquid, the most energetic molecules can overcome the downward attractive forces of other liquid molecules and the atmospheric pressure to escape from the surface of the liquid, hence evaporation occurs.
  • As the less energetic molecules are left behind, the average kinetic energy of the molecules in the liquid decreases, hence the temperature of the liquid decreases.

Boiling vs evaporation 

BoilingEvaporation
Occurs only at boiling point. Occurs at any temperature
Relatively fastRelatively slow
Takes place throughout the liquidTakes place only at the surface
Temperature remains constantTemperature usually decreases
Bubbles are formed in the liquidNo bubbles are formed in the liquid
External thermal energy source neededExternal thermal energy source not needed

Factors affecting rate of evaporation

  • Surrounding temperature.
  • Humidity.
  • Pressure.
  • Surface area.
  • Heat capacity of liquid.
  • Air flow.
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