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[O] Pure Chemistry Smart Guides

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  1. I. EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY

    1. Measurement & Experimental Techniques
    2 Topics
  2. 2. Separation & Purification
    5 Topics
  3. II. ATOMIC STRUCTURE
    3. Kinetic Particle Theory
    5 Topics
  4. 4. Elements, Compounds & Mixtures
    3 Topics
  5. 5. Atomic Structure
    3 Topics
  6. 6. Chemical Bonding
    4 Topics
  7. III. STOICHIOMETRY
    7. Writing Chemical Equations
    2 Topics
  8. 8. The Mole Concept
    4 Topics
  9. 9. Chemical Calculations
    6 Topics
  10. IV. CHEMISTRY OF REACTIONS
    10. Acids & Bases
    4 Topics
  11. 11. Salts
    3 Topics
  12. 12. Qualitative Analysis
    4 Topics
  13. 13. Oxidation & Reduction
    6 Topics
  14. 14. Electrolysis
    6 Topics
  15. 15. Energy Changes
    3 Topics
  16. 16. Speed of Reaction
    2 Topics
  17. 17. Ammonia
    1 Topic
  18. V. PERIODICITY
    18. Metals
    7 Topics
  19. 19. Periodic Table
    3 Topics
  20. VI. ATMOSPHERE
    20. Air & Atmosphere
    3 Topics
  21. VII. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    21. Organic Chemistry
    2 Topics
  22. 22. Alkanes & Alkenes
    7 Topics
  23. 23. Alcohols & Carboxylic Acids
    5 Topics
  24. 24. Macromolecules
    4 Topics
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Heating Curve of H₂O

I. Region

  • Solid(ice)
  • Temperature increases from -30ᴼC to 0ᴼC as thermal energy is absorbed by the ice, which results in an increase in the average KE of the ice particles.
  • The particles in a solid are held together by strong bonds.
  • There is no change in state.

II. Region

  • A mixture of solid(ice) and liquid(water)
  • The temperature remains constant at 0ᴼC during melting
  • The temperature remains constant as the thermal energy is absorbed to overcome the strong bonds between particles. 
  • The particles can move out of their fixed positions and hence are further apart from one another.
  • Therefore there is a change of state from solid to liquid

III. Region

  • Liquid(water)
  • There is no change of state
  • Temperature increases from 0ᴼC to 100ᴼC as thermal energy is absorbed by the water, which results in an increase in the average KE of the water molecules.
  • The molecules in the liquid are held together by strong bonds.

IV. Region

  • A mixture of liquid(water) and gas (steam).
  • The temperature remains constant at 100ᴼC during boiling
  • The temperature remains constant as thermal energy is absorbed to break the intermolecular bonds between particles,
  • provide energy for particles to push back on the surrounding atmosphere and increase the average space between particles. 
  • Therefore there is a change of state from liquid to gas.

V. Region

  • Gas (stream)