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[O] Pure Chemistry Smart Guides
I. EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY1. Measurement & Experimental Techniques2 Topics
2. Separation & Purification5 Topics
II. ATOMIC STRUCTURE3. Kinetic Particle Theory5 Topics
4. Elements, Compounds & Mixtures3 Topics
5. Atomic Structure3 Topics
6. Chemical Bonding4 Topics
III. STOICHIOMETRY7. Writing Chemical Equations2 Topics
8. The Mole Concept4 Topics
9. Chemical Calculations6 Topics
IV. CHEMISTRY OF REACTIONS10. Acids & Bases4 Topics
11. Salts3 Topics
12. Qualitative Analysis4 Topics
13. Oxidation & Reduction6 Topics
14. Electrolysis6 Topics
15. Energy Changes3 Topics
16. Speed of Reaction2 Topics
17. Ammonia1 Topic
V. PERIODICITY18. Metals7 Topics
19. Periodic Table3 Topics
VI. ATMOSPHERE20. Air & Atmosphere3 Topics
VII. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY21. Organic Chemistry2 Topics
22. Alkanes & Alkenes7 Topics
23. Alcohols & Carboxylic Acids5 Topics
24. Macromolecules4 Topics
Chapter 3, Topic 3
Melting & Boiling
Heating Curve of H₂O
- Temperature increases from -30ᴼC to 0ᴼC as thermal energy is absorbed by the ice, which results in an increase in the average KE of the ice particles.
- The particles in a solid are held together by strong bonds.
- There is no change in state.
- A mixture of solid(ice) and liquid(water)
- The temperature remains constant at 0ᴼC during melting
- The temperature remains constant as the thermal energy is absorbed to overcome the strong bonds between particles.
- The particles can move out of their fixed positions and hence are further apart from one another.
- Therefore there is a change of state from solid to liquid
- There is no change of state
- Temperature increases from 0ᴼC to 100ᴼC as thermal energy is absorbed by the water, which results in an increase in the average KE of the water molecules.
- The molecules in the liquid are held together by strong bonds.
- A mixture of liquid(water) and gas (steam).
- The temperature remains constant at 100ᴼC during boiling
- The temperature remains constant as thermal energy is absorbed to break the intermolecular bonds between particles,
- provide energy for particles to push back on the surrounding atmosphere and increase the average space between particles.
- Therefore there is a change of state from liquid to gas.
- Gas (stream)