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[O] Pure Chemistry Smart Guides

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  1. I. EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY

    1. Measurement & Experimental Techniques
    2 Topics
  2. 2. Separation & Purification
    5 Topics
  3. II. ATOMIC STRUCTURE
    3. Kinetic Particle Theory
    5 Topics
  4. 4. Elements, Compounds & Mixtures
    3 Topics
  5. 5. Atomic Structure
    3 Topics
  6. 6. Chemical Bonding
    4 Topics
  7. III. STOICHIOMETRY
    7. Writing Chemical Equations
    2 Topics
  8. 8. The Mole Concept
    4 Topics
  9. 9. Chemical Calculations
    6 Topics
  10. IV. CHEMISTRY OF REACTIONS
    10. Acids & Bases
    4 Topics
  11. 11. Salts
    3 Topics
  12. 12. Qualitative Analysis
    4 Topics
  13. 13. Oxidation & Reduction
    6 Topics
  14. 14. Electrolysis
    6 Topics
  15. 15. Energy Changes
    3 Topics
  16. 16. Speed of Reaction
    2 Topics
  17. 17. Ammonia
    1 Topic
  18. V. PERIODICITY
    18. Metals
    7 Topics
  19. 19. Periodic Table
    3 Topics
  20. VI. ATMOSPHERE
    20. Air & Atmosphere
    3 Topics
  21. VII. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    21. Organic Chemistry
    2 Topics
  22. 22. Alkanes & Alkenes
    7 Topics
  23. 23. Alcohols & Carboxylic Acids
    5 Topics
  24. 24. Macromolecules
    4 Topics
Chapter 5, Topic 1
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Atoms

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The Model of an Atom

  • Atoms are made up of smaller particles called subatomic particles.
  • The protons and neutrons are called the nucleons which are found in the nucleus.
  • The nucleus is surrounded by a ‘cloud’ of electrons.
  • The electrons are arranged in shells.
  • An atom is electrically neutral when the number of protons = number of electrons.
Subatomic particleSymbolRelative massCharge
Protonp11+
Neutronn10
Electrone⁻1/18401-

Each element has its own structure of atom

Proton Number (atomic number)

  • Number of protons in an atom
  • Number of electrons in an electrically neutral atom

Nucleon Number (atomic mass)

  • number of protons + number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom