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Social Studies Sample
Social Studies A1 Cheat Sheets, Topic 8 Lesson 2.
Developments in Transportation
The World Has “Shrunk”
- The world seems to have “shrunk” in terms of the time needed to get from one place to another.
- This is achieved through improvements in the size and speed of the different modes of transportation.
- With the increasing mobility of goods and people, it is important to have an efficient transport network worldwide, which includes airports, seaports, railways and highways to make it possible for more goods and people to be moved around easily. In addition, improvements made to the size and speed of transportation modes enabled more goods and people to be carried per trip. This led to savings in transport cost.
- When goods and people can be moved around quickly at a lower cost, it facilitates the process through which people’s activities and ideas become interconnected.
- For example: air transportation has evolved and improved drastically over the years. In 1903, the first engineered plane, the Wright 1903-Flyer with a capacity of 1 passenger was created.
- The first 16-passenger commercial aeroplane was created in 1913. A more advanced commercial passenger aeroplane with a capacity of 853 passengers is the largest and most advanced model in 2006.
History Elective A1 Cheat Sheets, UNIT 2 Lesson 1.
Reasons for the Weakness of the League of Nations.
1. Structural Weaknesses.
Structural weaknesses in the League include the lack of authority & limited membership.
Various parts of the League did not work together & it was hard to take effective action.
- The Secretariat was understaffed and disorganised.
- The Conference of Ambassadors often made decisions that should have been made by the League itself, and
- The working relationship between the General Assembly and the Council was not clearly defined.
Authorisation for any action required a unanimous vote or complete agreement by the Council, & a two-third majority vote in the Assembly. This presented two major problems:
- No.1: The need for an unanimous decision could not work as permanent members of the Council had the power of veto, which is the right to refuse to give official permission. This meant that once a permanent member vetoed a decision, the proposed action could not be carried out. This made decision making difficult especially when a dispute involved one of the permanent members.
- No.2: Some decisions required the consent of the entire Assembly. With so many nations represented in the League, it was extremely difficult to obtain unanimous consent for any decision.